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From finds uncovered in the Aspri Petra cave on Zini Hill near Kefalos we know that Kos has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Systematic study and research enriched with new discoveries placed these finds in the Early Bronze Age, also known as the Proto-Helladic Period (2900-2100 BC).
At that time there were large Pelasgic population shifts throughout the entire Greek mainland, the Aegean Sea, Asia Minor and Cyprus. The first residents are estimated as having settled in the city of Kos around 2300-2000 BC and were exposed to the gradual expansion and influence of both Minoan and Mycenean culture which left behind important traces (1600-1150 BC).
Following the Trojan War, in which Kos together with nearby islands participated by sending 30 ships, the so-called 'descent of Doric civilization' began, spreading to the islands and the coast of Asia Minor. According to the prevailing view, these new residents of Kos in all likelihood came from the Argolid.
  During the 7th - 6th century BC, Kos together with the cities of Knidus and Halicarnassus in Asia Minor and Ialyssos, Kameiros and Lindos on Rhodes formed the Dorian League also known as the Doric Hexapolis.
The centre of this league was the temple of Apollo Triopius at Knidus. This League was religious, economic and political in character.
Around 500 BC Kos fell to the Persians and was forced to participate on their side in the Naval Battle of Salamina (480 BC) together with other subject Greek cities in Asia Minor and on the islands. However, following the Greek victory in the Persian Wars and the removal of the Persian threat, liberated Kos was included in the Athenian League.

This is the capital and main port of the island with around 17,000 residents. In the area surrounding the port there are well-preserved, grandiose building from the period of Italian rule as well as monuments from the Hellenistic and Roman periods. The remainder of the town is new, having been rebuilt according to a new town plan following the catastrophic earthquake of 1933. There is a lot of greenery, an excellent market and all public services are centrally located.
The port is particularly picturesque while nearby the town and its hinterland are several charming beaches.
The Asfendiou Villages: At a distance of 14 km from the capital lies the area of Asfendiou with around 3,200 residents consisting of 5 different villages built on the slopes of Mt. Dikeos, nestled among forest. The villages have houses set in flower-filled courtyards, traditional taverns, and coffee houses. Nearby is Tingaki, a summer resort. Today most residents of the Asfendiou area have settled in Zipari.

At a distance of 15 km from the capital of Kos, Pyli with its 2,800 residents approximately is a village built on the slopes of Mt. Dikeos affording its wonderful views of the verdant plain below with its wealth of fields that stretch down to the sea.
Marmari nearby the village has many summer residences and has developed rapidly over recent years since it is endowed with marvellous sandy stretches.
Some 23 km from Kos town, with around 2,500 residents, is the village of Antimachia made up of 4 distinct settlements the primary one being Mastihari, Antimachia's port, and site of many summer residences. The island's international airport "Hippocrates" is located at Antimachia.

Some 25 km from the capital and 7km from the airport is the fishing village of Kardamena with its 1,700 residents. It is built at the location of the ancient city of Alasarna. Kardamena developed rather rapidly into one of the most buzzing tourist resorts on the islands and is now one of the most tourist-oriented villages in Europe. It has very good beaches and many forms of entertainment. Visitors to Kardamena can also take tour boats that go across to the nearby island of Nissyros or even to the village of Kefalos and the capital, thus affording them the opportunity to take a scenic trip by sea.

Situated 40 km from the island's capital with 2,500 residents the village, Kefalos is at the westernmost tip of the island on a hill with whitewashed houses and clean streets. At Kamari there is a picturesque small port with fishing boats while in the surrounding area are exceptional beaches, some fully organized and others deserted, ready to welcome and satisfy all manner of visitors. There are also daily trips by caique to Kardamena and Nissyros.

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